Rhinitis, or runny nose, is the inflammation syndrome of the nasal mucosa. Infectious rhinitis is caused by various viruses and germs. The development of rhinitis is influenced by heavy dust, hypothermia, and levels of air pollution. Rhinitis is a common symptom of other diseases – diphtheria, influenza, and measles.
The first step is often called reflex stage, and it happens after the incident of hypothermia. Its duration is just a few hours, during which blood vessels narrow and then expand, and the nasal turbinates get swollen.
- dryness in the nasal cavity;
- burning in the nose;
- it is difficult to breathe through the nose;
- rapid sneezing;
- the nasal mucous membranes are pale and dry.
During its second stage, rhinitis lasts for an average of two or three days;
- its development is influenced by the microbes in the body;
- the sense of smell is impaired;
- the molecules of odorous substances penetrate the olfactory area, which is responsible for recognition and perception of odors and irritate the cells of this area;
- the impulse, directed by the nerve fibers to the special area of the cerebral cortex and responsible for identifying odors, is lost;
- there is profuse colorless secretion from the nose;
- breathing through the nose is a trouble;
- smell is worsened (it is hard to distinguish smells);
- one or both ears are stuffy;
- tears flow;
- the tone of voice changes;
- pronunciation of sounds is distorted;
- nasal mucosa is painted in bright red color.
During the third stage, bacterial inflammation develops. Overall health of the patient gets better, the olfactory function and breathing through the nose are back to norm, and nasal secretion becomes yellow or green in color and is denser in general. Within approximately seven or ten days, the disease cycle will be completely finished. In some situations, recovery may occur in just two or three days. This usually occurs when a person has a good immune system, and the treatment is carried out under medical supervision.
Runny Nose Treatment
Otolaryngologists use a variety of drugs for the treatment of rhinitis:
- medications, which can have a complex action.
If there is no normal treatment, rhinitis passes into the chronic stage, which leads to complications:
sinusitis with the inflammation of the paranasal maxillary sinus mucosa;
- disruption of normal nasal breathing;
- tension in the affected sinus;
- impaired sense of smell on the affected side;
- pain in the area of the temple and forehead;
- severe pain in the back of the ear;
- hearing impairment.